N-acetyl-L-cysteine: Precursor to L-cysteine, which is required for the synthesis of glutathione, an endogenous antioxidant important for mediating oxidative stress (1,2).* L-cysteine modulates glutamate activity through activation of cystine/glutamate antiporters (3).
L-theanine: Amino acid that acts as a glutamate receptor antagonist (4).* Glutamatergic signaling underlies mechanisms related to anxiousness and stress (5). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, L-theanine was shown to significantly reduce stress (6).*
Alpha-lipoic acid: Antioxidant that is able to regenerate endogenous antioxidants and scavenge metal ions and free radicals (7).* Evidence suggests the insulin-signaling pathway is sensitive to redox status (7). Alpha-lipoic acid can influence the redox status in cells important for the translocation of glucose transporters and increasing glucose uptake (7).*
Coenzyme Q10: Compound found in nearly every human cell that is essential for mitochondrial function and antioxidant protection (8).*
*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.